Article Without DOI

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Article Without DOI

When conducting research or writing academic papers, it’s common to come across articles without a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). While DOIs have become more prevalent in recent years, there are still many articles that don’t have this unique identifier. In this article, we will explore what a DOI is, why some articles do not have one, and how to handle articles without a DOI in your research.

Key Takeaways:

  • A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that provides a permanent link to an online article.
  • Some older articles or articles from certain disciplines may not have a DOI.
  • When citing articles without a DOI, it’s important to use alternative methods such as using the article’s URL or referencing the print version.
  • Researchers should consult the preferred citation style guide for specific guidelines on citing articles without a DOI.

A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a unique string of characters assigned to a digital document or article to provide a permanent link to its location on the internet. DOIs were introduced to overcome the problem of broken links and ensure the long-term accessibility of online articles. They serve as a more reliable way to locate and cite articles than relying solely on URLs.

However, not all articles have a DOI. This is usually the case for older articles that were published before DOIs became widely adopted. Additionally, some disciplines, such as the humanities, have been slower in adopting DOIs compared to scientific fields. Therefore, it is important to understand how to handle articles without a DOI when conducting research or writing papers.

When citing an article without a DOI, it is important to consider alternative strategies. Here are some options to help you properly cite articles without a DOI:

  1. Use the URL of the article: If the article is available online, you can include the URL in the citation. Make sure the link is accurate and stable.
  2. Reference the print version of the article: If the article exists in print form, you can cite it as you would any other printed material. Include the author, title, journal or book name, page numbers, and publication date.
  3. Consult the database or publishing platform for additional identification: Some databases or publishing platforms may assign their own identification numbers to articles. Check if there are any unique identifiers or accession numbers provided that can be used in the citation.

It is crucial to consult the specific citation guidelines of your preferred citation style (such as APA, MLA, or Chicago) for detailed instructions on how to properly cite articles without a DOI.

Table 1: Comparison of Citation Styles for Articles Without a DOI
Citation Style APA MLA Chicago
Article with URL Include the URL in the citation. Include the URL in the citation. Include the URL in the citation.
Article without URL Reference the print version or database information. Reference the print version or database information. Reference the print version or database information.

Note: The preferred citation style may vary depending on the academic field or institution. Always refer to the specific guidelines for accurate citations.

Researchers encountering articles without a DOI should also take note of the following points:

  • Not having a DOI doesn’t necessarily mean the article is less trustworthy or valuable.
  • Double-check the accuracy of the citation information, including author names, titles, and publication details.
  • Consider using additional search tools or databases to find alternative versions of the article that may have a DOI assigned.
Table 2: Examples of Journal Manuscript Types Without a DOI
Manuscript Type Description
Editorials Opinion pieces written by the editorial board or experts in the field.
Letters to the Editor Correspondence or feedback from readers regarding previously published articles.
Book Reviews Evaluations and critiques of recently published books.
Conference Proceedings Papers presented at conferences or symposiums.

It’s important to adapt your research strategies to handle articles without a DOI to ensure accurate and reliable citations for your work.


In conclusion, while DOIs have become a standard for identifying and citing online articles, there are still many articles without this unique identifier. When encountering articles without a DOI, researchers should consult the preferred citation style guide for specific guidelines on how to handle such articles. By exploring alternative citation methods and utilizing additional search tools, researchers can ensure accurate and comprehensive citations despite the absence of a DOI.

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Common Misconceptions

Article Without DOI

Many people have certain misconceptions about articles that do not have a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). Here are three common misconceptions:

  • Articles without a DOI are unreliable: One common misconception is that articles lacking a DOI tend to be less credible or reliable compared to those with a DOI. However, the presence or absence of a DOI does not necessarily reflect the quality or validity of the article.
  • Articles without a DOI are not peer-reviewed: Another common misconception is that articles lacking a DOI have not gone through a peer-review process and thus may not be trustworthy. While DOIs are often assigned to peer-reviewed articles, it is possible for peer-reviewed articles to not have DOIs, especially in certain fields or publication outlets.
  • Articles without a DOI are difficult to access: Many people believe that articles without a DOI are hard to find or access. While DOIs can provide a standardized way to access articles, it is not the only method. Articles without a DOI can still be accessed through various databases, search engines, and library portals.

It is important to debunk these misconceptions to avoid overlooking valuable information. Here are three additional misconceptions related to articles without a DOI:

  • Articles without a DOI lack citation information: Some individuals assume that without a DOI, it may become challenging to properly cite an article. However, alternative methods such as using the article’s URL, unique identifiers assigned by databases, or including the journal’s name and page numbers can adequately support accurate citations.
  • Articles without a DOI are of lesser importance: There is a tendency to believe that articles without a DOI are of lower importance or significance compared to those with a DOI. However, this is not necessarily true, as the decision to assign a DOI may depend on various factors that go beyond the scholarly merit of the article.
  • Articles without a DOI are not widely recognized: Some individuals assume that articles lacking a DOI may not be widely recognized or respected within the academic community. However, the recognition of an article is primarily based on the quality of its content, author reputation, and the reputation of the journal or conference in which it is published.

Busting these myths can help researchers and readers approach articles without a DOI with a more open and unbiased mindset. Here are three final misconceptions:

  • Articles without a DOI are not properly archived: Some individuals believe that articles without a DOI may not be adequately archived and thus are at a higher risk of being lost or becoming inaccessible in the future. However, many libraries and databases maintain proper archiving and preservation measures for articles, regardless of whether they have a DOI.
  • Articles without a DOI are exclusively found on questionable platforms: People often associate articles without a DOI with being published on less reputable or questionable platforms. While it is true that some predatory publishers or low-quality sources may not assign DOIs, articles without a DOI can also be found in reputable sources, such as conference proceedings or niche journals.
  • Articles without a DOI are outdated: It is a misconception that articles without a DOI are likely outdated and not reflective of current research. Many scholarly articles without a DOI are recent publications and can provide valuable insights into emerging research areas or findings that have not yet been assigned a DOI.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Frequently Asked Questions

What is an Article Without DOI?

An article without a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a scholarly publication that lacks a unique alphanumeric identifier assigned by the International DOI Foundation. DOIs are widely used to identify and access digital content on the internet.

Why do some articles not have a DOI?

There can be several reasons why an article may not have a DOI. It could be an older publication that was released before DOIs became common or it could be a conference paper or a report that may not have been assigned a DOI.

How can I cite an article without a DOI?

When citing an article without a DOI, it is important to provide as much information as possible to help readers locate the source. Include the author(s), title of the article, publication date, journal or source title, volume and issue number (if applicable), and the page range.

Are articles without DOIs less credible or reliable?

The presence or absence of a DOI does not determine the credibility or reliability of an article. It is important to evaluate the overall quality of the content, the credibility of the author(s), and the reputation of the publication or journal.

Can I still access articles without a DOI?

Yes, articles without a DOI can still be accessed through various means. You can try searching for the article using the title, author(s), or keywords in academic databases, library catalogs, or even by reaching out to the authors directly to request a copy.

Are there any alternatives to DOIs for identifying articles?

While DOIs are widely used, there are alternative identifiers that can be used to identify articles. Some publications may use other unique identifiers like PMID (PubMed ID) or ISBN (International Standard Book Number) depending on the type of content being cited.

Is it possible for an article to have a DOI in the future?

Although it is unlikely for an article without a DOI to be assigned one retrospectively, there is a possibility that future editions or versions of the article may receive a DOI. It is always recommended to check for any updated versions or reprints that might have a DOI assigned.

How do I search for articles without DOIs in online databases?

When searching for articles without DOIs in online databases, try using advanced search options and include relevant keywords, author names, journal titles, or other publication details to narrow down the search results. It may also be helpful to consult with librarians or subject-specific databases for assistance.

Can I include a URL as an alternative to a DOI?

In the absence of a DOI, including a URL or hyperlink to the article can be beneficial in helping readers access the content directly. However, keep in mind that URLs can change over time, so it is advisable to double-check the accessibility of the linked resource.

Why are DOIs important in scholarly publishing?

DOIs provide a persistent link to digital content and are essential for ensuring reliable access to scholarly publications. They make it easier for researchers, academics, and other readers to locate, cite, and reference articles, thereby enhancing the efficiency and integrity of scholarly communication.